Tapestry IoC Decorators
Decoration is the name of a popular design pattern. Using decoration, an existing object's behavior can be extended without changing the implementation of the object.
Instead, a new object is placed around the existing object. The rest of the world sees this new object, termed an interceptor. The interceptor implements the same interface as the underlying object being decorated.
A common example for this is the Java I/O library. The abstract InputStream base class has a very simple API for reading bytes from a stream (and a few other things). Subclasses of InputStream provide a wide array of other options such as buffering, encryption or decryption, as well as control over the source of data read by the stream. All of these concerns are encapsulated in different implementations of InputStream, and all can be connected together in a kind of pipeline, using the common InputStream API.
Tapestry IoC uses a similar approach, where one or more interceptor objects, all implementing the service interface, are strung together. The service's proxy (responsible for just-in-time instantiation of the service implementation) is at one end of this pipeline, the core service implementation is at the other.
For each method in the service interface, the interceptor object can perform some operations before and after re-invoking the same method on the core service implementation. This is another design pattern: delegation. An interceptor can even catch exceptions thrown by the underlying implementation and react to them. A sufficiently clever interceptor could retry a method if an exception is thrown, or could "soften" a checked exception by wrapping it in a RuntimeException.
Decorators often are used in the context of cross-cutting concerns, such as logging or transaction management. This approach is a kind of aspect oriented design.
One such cross cutting concern is lazy initialization of services. In Apache HiveMind, services are created only as needed, when a method of a service interface is first invoked. This concern is supplied by the Tapestry IoC framework itself, but similar concerns are easily implemented as decorations.
Whereas the popular AspectJ framework changes the compiled bytecode of your classes (it calls the process "weaving"), with Tapestry IoC, the approach is to wrap your existing classes in new objects. These wrapper objects are often dynamically created at runtime.
It is also common to have multiple decorations on a single service. In this case, a whole stack of interceptor objects will be created, each delegating to the next. Tapestry IoC provides control over the order in which such decorations occur.
Decorations are driven by service decoration methods. Often, a reusable service exists to do the grunt work of creating and instantiating a new class.
Service Decoration Methods
The method decorateIndexer() is a service decorator method because it starts with the word "decorate". In this simple case, only the myapp.Indexer service will be decorated, even if there are other services in this module or others ... this is because of the name match ("decorateIndexer" and "buildIndexer"), but we'll shortly see how annotations can be used to target many services for decoration.
We are using the parameterized types here (the <T>), to reinforce the fact that the delegate object passed in (which will be the core service implementation, or some other interceptor) must implement the service interface, and that the decorator method must return an instance of the service interface.
The values that may be provided to a decorator method are exactly the same as for a builder method, with one addition: The underlying service will be passed in as a parameter of type java.lang.Object (after type erasure, the
T delegate parameter becomes
In the above example, the decorator method receives the core service implementation, the service interface for the Indexer service, the Log for the Indexer service, and an interceptor factory that generates logging interceptors.
The "heavy lifting" is provided by the factory, which will create a new interceptor that logs method entry before delegating to the core service implementation. The interceptor will also log method parameters, return values, and even log exceptions.
The return value of the method is the new interceptor. You may return null if your decorator method decides not to decorate the supplied service.
Alternately, when targetting services whose type is known at compile time, you may provide a parameter whose type matches the service interface. For example, decorateIndexer() will always be applied to the Indexer service, whose type (Indexer) is known. We could therefore rewrite decorateIndexer() as:
Of course, nothing stops you from combining building with decorating inside the service builder method:
But as we'll see next, it's possible to have a single decorator method work on many different services by using annotations.
Targeting Multiple Services
By using the @Match annotation, you may identify which services are to be decorated.
The value specified in the Match annotation is one or more patterns. These patterns are used to match services. Patterns take two forms: glob patterns and regular expressions.
In a glob pattern, a "*" at the start or end of a string will match zero or more characters. Regular expressions provide a lot more matching power, but require a more involved syntax.
In either case, the matching is case insensitive.
For example, to target all the services in your module:
You can use multiple patterns with @Match, in which case, the decorator will be applied to a service that matches any of the patterns. For instance, if you only wanted logging for your data access and business logic services, you might end up with
@Match("Data*", "*Logic") (based, of course, on how you name your services).
As the preceding example showed, a simple "glob" matching is supported, where a asterisk ('*') may be used at the start or end of the match string to match any number of characters. As elsewhere, matching is case insensitive.
@Match("*") is dangerous, because it will match every service in every module.
Note: It is not possible to decorate the services of the TapestryIOCModule.
Note: Another idea will be other ways of matching services: base on inheritance of the service interface and/or based on the presence of particular class annotations on the service interface. None of this has been implemented yet, and can readily be accomplished inside the decorator method (which will return null if it decides the service doesn't need decoration).
Ordering of Decorators
In cases where multiple decorators will apply to a single service, you can control the order in which decorators are applied using an additional annotation: @Order.
This annotation allows any number of ordering constraints to be specified for the decorator, to order it relative to any other decorators.
For example, you almost always want logging decorators to come first, so:
"before:*" indicates that this decorator should come before any decorator in any module.
Note: the ordering of decorators is in terms of the effect desired. Internally, the decorators are invoked last to first (since each once receives the "next" interceptor as its delegate). So the core service implementation is created (via a service builder method) and that is passed to the last decorator method. The interceptor created there is passed to the the next-to-last decorator method, and so forth.
It should now be evident that the delegate passed into a decorator method is sometimes the core service implementation, and some times an interceptor object created by some other decorator method.
Annotation driven decorators
Starting from version 5.2, Tapestry supports annotation-driven decorator methods. If the @Decorate annotation is present, the decorator method can be arbitrary named, as shown in the following example.
The decorator above is applied to any service whose id matches the "*DAO" pattern.
Alternatively, marker annotations can be placed on the decorate method to match a specific service.
The decorator above is applied to any service that is marked by the @Blue annotation.
By default, @Decorate annotation applies the decorator to any service matched by the @Match or marker annotations. You can limit the matching to a single service interface, as shown in the following example.
In the example above, the decorator is applied to any implementation of MyService interfaces whose id matches the "*DAO" pattern.
The decorator above is applied to any implementation of the MyService interface that is marked by the @Blue annotation.
Creating your own Decorators
Decorators are a limited form of Aspect Oriented Programming, so we have borrowed some of that terminology here.
A decorator exists to create an interceptor. The interceptor wraps around the service (because these interceptors can get chained, we talk about the "delegate" and not the "service").
Each method of the interceptor will take advice. Advice is provided by a MethodAdvice instance. The sole method,
advise(), receives an Invocation. MethodAdvice gives you a chance to see what the method invocation is; you can query the name of the method, and the types and values of the parameters.
The MethodAdvice can override the parameters if necessary, then invoke
proceed(). This call invokes the corresponding method on the original object, the delegate.
If the method call throws a runtime exception, that exception is not caught. Your method advice can put a try ... catch block around the call to proceed() if interested in catching runtime exceptions.
Checked exceptions are not thrown (since they are not part of the proceed() method's signature). Instead the invocation's
isFail() method will return true. You can then retrieve the exception or override it.
In the normal success case, you can ask for the return value and even override it before returning from the advise() method.
In other words, you have total control. Your MethodAdvice can query or change parameters, decide whether it proceed into the original code, it can intercept exceptions that are thrown and replace them, and can query or even replace the return value.
The AspectDecorator service is how you put your MethodAdvice into action.
By way of an example, we'll show an implementation of the LoggingDecorator service:
The actual code has been refactored slightly since this documentation was written.
Most of the logging logic occurs inside the ServiceLogger object, the MethodAdvice exists to call the right methods at the right time. A Logger doesn't change parameter values (or thrown exceptions, or the result), it just captures and logs the data.
Notice that for runtime exceptions, we catch the exception, log it, and rethrow it.
For checked exceptions, we use isFail() and getThrown().
The AspectDecorator service can also be used in more complicated ways: it is possible to only advise some of the methods and not others, or use different advice for different methods. Check the JavaDoc for more details.